References for Part D

Ocean Pollution Prevention 

Steven Matthew

Further Information and References

Managed by the Marine department:

Cap. 413 Merchant Shipping (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Ordinance

Cap. 414 Merchant Shipping (Liability and Compensation for Oil Pollution) Ordinance

Cap. 605 Bunker Oil Pollution (Liability and Compensation) Ordinance

Managed by the Environment Protection Department:

Cap. 358 Water Pollution Control Ordnance 

Cap. 466 Dumping at Sea Ordnance

Citizen Action and Community Initiatives

Isabelle Chabrat and Harry Chan Tin-Ming, MH

Further Information and References

The Process of Impact Innovation 

Chicky Ajoy Bhavnani and Cesar Jung Harada

Case Studies

Coral Conservation Program

Plankton and Microplastic

Further Information and Links

Responsible Citizens: Sustainable Consumption and Lifestyles 

Edward Choi, Hermia Chan and Kelly Lam

Further Information and References

To calculate the CO2 emission of return flights:

The Ocean Economy – a New Frontier – Also the Opportunity to Build a Sustainable Blue Economy 

Pierre Rousseau

Further Information and References

The Blue Economy definition (1):

World Bankthe blue economy is the “sustainable use of ocean resources for economic growth, improved livelihoods, and jobs while preserving the health of ocean ecosystem.”

European Commission: all economic activities related to oceans, seas, and coasts. It covers a wide range of interlinked established and emerging sectors.

Commonwealth of Nations: an emerging concept which encourages better stewardship of our ocean or ‘blue’ resources.

Conservation International: blue economy also includes economic benefits that may not be marketed, such as carbon storage, coastal protection, cultural values, and biodiversity.

The Center for the Blue Economy: it is now a widely used term around the world with three related but distinct meanings – the overall contribution of the oceans to economies, the need to address the environmental and ecological sustainability of the oceans, and the ocean economy as a growth opportunity for both developed and developing countries.

A United Nations representative recently defined the Blue Economy as an economy that “comprises a range of economic sectors and related policies that together determine whether the use of ocean resources is sustainable. An important challenge of the blue economy is to understand and better manage the many aspects of oceanic sustainability, ranging from sustainable fisheries to ecosystem health to preventing pollution. Secondly, the blue economy challenges us to realise that the sustainable management of ocean resources will require collaboration across borders and sectors through a variety of partnerships, and on a scale that has not been previously achieved. This is a tall order, particularly for Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and Least Developed Countries (LDCs) who face significant limitations.” The UN notes that the Blue Economy will aid in achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals, of which one goal, 14, is “Life Below Water”.

World Wildlife Fund: Principles for a Sustainable BLUE ECONOMY with two senses given to this term: “For some, blue economy means the use of the sea and its resources for sustainable economic development. For others, it simply refers to any economic activity in the maritime sector, whether sustainable or not.” WWF reveals in its purpose of the report, there is still no widely accepted definition of the term blue economy despite increasing high-level adoption of it as a concept and as a goal of policymaking and investment.

The Blue Economy: 10 Years – 100 innovations – 100 million jobs is also a book by Gunter Pauli. He defines the Blue Economy business model which aims is to shift society from scarcity to abundance by optimising the access to local resources and tackling issues related to the environment. If it could, to a certain extent, be aligned with some of the concepts developed above, the Blue Economy defined here by Gunter Pauli is different from the one exposed in the present paper.

The definition of the Blue Economy that we do use in the present document is a combination of the one stated and the European Commission, The centre of the Blue Economy and the Non-Profit organisation Conservation International: Blue Economy comprises all economic activities related to oceans, seas and coasts. It covers a wide range of interlinked established and emerging sectors and the ocean economy as a growth opportunity for both developed and developing countries. It fully integrates the need to address the environmental and ecological sustainability of the oceans. It also includes economic benefits that may not be marketed, such as carbon storage, coastal protection, cultural values and biodiversity.

Related Terms to the Blue Economy:

Ocean Economy

A related term of Blue Economy is Ocean Economy, and we see some organisations using the two terms interchangeably. However, these two terms represent different concepts. Ocean Economy simply deals with the use of ocean resources and is strictly aimed at empowering the economic system of the ocean. Blue Economy goes beyond viewing the ocean economy solely as a mechanism for economic growth. It focuses on the sustainability of the ocean for economic growth. Therefore, the Blue Economy encompasses ecological aspects of the ocean along with economic aspects.

Green Economy

The Green Economy is defined as an economy that aims at reducing environmental risks, and that aims for sustainable development without degrading the environment. It is closely related with ecological economics. Therefore, Blue Economy is a part of Green Economy. During Rio+20 Summit in June 2012, Pacific small island developing states stated that, for them, “a Green Economy was in fact a Blue Economy”.

Blue Growth

A related term is Blue Growth, which means “support to the growth of the maritime sector in a sustainable way.” The term is adopted by the European Union as an integrated maritime policy to achieve the goals of the Europe 2020 strategy.

(1) Main source: Wikipedia 

↑ Total production

↑ Wild fish capture

↑ Aquaculture harvest

Coral Restoration: Objectives and Examples in Hong Kong

Vriko Yu

Further Information and References

Aronson J, Blatz C, Aronson T (2016) Restoring ecosystem health to improve human health and well-being: physicians and restoration ecologists unite in a common cause. Ecol Soc 21

Chapin F S, Zavaleta E S, Eviner V T, Naylor R L, Vitousek P M, Reynolds H L, Hooper D U, Lavorel S, Sala O E, Hobbie S E, Mack M C, Díaz S (2000) Consequences of changing biodiversity. Nature 

Dobson A, Lodge D, Alder J, Cumming G S, Keymer J, McGlade J, Mooney H, Rusak JA, Sala O, Wolters V, Wall D, Winfree R, Xenopoulos MA (2006) Habitat loss, trophic collapse, and the decline of ecosystem services. Ecology 

Gouezo M, Golbuu Y, Fabricius K, Olsudong D, Mereb G, Nestor V, Wolanski E, Harrison P, Doropoulos C (2019) Drivers of recovery and reassembly of coral reef communities. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 

Jackson S T, Hobbs R J (2009) Ecological restoration in the light of ecological history. Science (80-) 

Lotze H K, Lenihan H S, Bourque B J, Bradbury R H, Cooke R G, Kay M C, Kidwell S M, Kirby M X, Peterson C H, Jackson J B C (2006) Depletion degradation, and recovery potential of estuaries and coastal seas. Science (80-) 

Mawdsley J R, O’Malley R, Ojima DS (2009) A review of climate-change adaptation strategies for wildlife management and biodiversity conservation. Conserv Biol 

Possingham HP, Bode M, Klein CJ (2015) Optimal Conservation Outcomes Require Both Restoration and Protection. PLoS Biol 13 

Society of Ecological Restoration International Science & Policy Working Group (2004) The SER International Primer on Ecological Restoration 

Marine Protected Areas: Role and Function

Dr Nicolas Pascal

Further Information and References

Alvarez-Filip, L, et al (2009) “Flattening of Caribbean coral reefs: region-wide declines in architectural complexity.” Proc R Soc B doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.0339

Burke, L M, et al (2004) “Reefs at Risk in the Caribbean”

Burke, L, et al (2011). “Reefs at risk”, World Resources Institute, Washington, DC 124

Dixon, J A  et al (1993)  “Meeting Ecological and Economic Goals: The Case of Marine Parks in the Caribbean,” paper prepared for the Second Conference on Ecology and Biodiversity Loss, 

Dulvy, N K, et al (2004) “Coral reef cascades and the indirect effects of predator removal by exploitation”, Ecology letters 7(5): 410-416

Ecology and Biodiversity Loss, Beijer Institute, Stockholm, Sweden, July 29-31, 1992, World Bank, Washington DC, USA

Halpern, B S and R R Warner (2002) “Marine reserves have rapid and lasting effects”, Ecology letters 5(3): 361-366

Kelleher, G (1999) “Guidelines for Marine Protected Areas,” IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK  xxiv +107pp

Laffoley, D, et al (2018) “Marine Protected Areas, in: Sheppard, C (ed) World Seas: An Environmental Evaluation: Volume III: Ecological Issues and Environmental Impacts,” Academic Press

Mellin, C, et al (2016) “Marine protected areas increase resilience among coral reef communities”, Ecology letters 19(6): 629-637

Mumby, P J and R S Steneck (2008) “Coral Reef Management and Conservation in Light of Rapidly Evolving Ecological Paradigms,” Trends Ecol Evol 2008 Oct; 23(10):555-63, doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2008.06.011, Epub 2008, Aug 21

Mumby, P J, et al (2007) “Trophic Cascade Facilitates Coral Recruitment in a Marine Reserve,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104(20): 8362-8367

Mumby, P, et al (2014) “Towards Reef Resilience and Sustainable Livelihoods: A Handbook for Caribbean Coral Reef Managers”

Paddack, M J, et al (2009) “Recent Region-wide Declines in Caribbean Reef Fish Abundance,” Current biology 19(7): 590-595

Steneck, R S, et al (2018) “Attenuating Effects of Ecosystem Management on Coral Reefs,” Science Advances, 4(5), eaao5493

Storlazzi, C D, et al (2019) “Rigorously Valuing the Role of US Coral Reefs in Coastal Hazard Risk Reduction,” US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2019–1027, 42 p,

Weijerman, M, et al (2018) “Managing Local Stressors for Coral Reef Condition and Ecosystem Services Delivery under Climate Scenarios,” Frontiers in Marine Science, 5, 425

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